Ceratitis capitata is a species of brackish dipterous of the family Tephritidae native to the west coast of Africa, where very close species live. From there it spread to areas with temperate, subtropical and tropical climates of the two hemispheres. It is considered a cosmopolitan species because of the worldwide dispersion that is currently due to a large extent to the increase in world trade in fruits.
In spite of its origin it is usually called Mediterranean fruit fly, since it is in these Mediterranean countries where its economic impact on crops is higher. It is also sometimes called simply fruit fly.