State Size Features
Larva 6-9 mm It is a cream-colored larva, without legs, with a very small head and the anterior end of the body narrower than the posterior.
Adult 5-6 mm Body yellowish, with translucent wings and stained brown, black and yellow. Thorax whitish, with a mosaic characteristic of black spots. Bright black coat. Abdomen with two lighter transverse bands. Big, red eyes
Pupa Larva Egg Total cycle
Duration (d) at 25ºC 2-5 8-10 6-13 16-25
The fruit fly spends the winter as a pupa, buried in the ground or as a larva if it finds hosts that bear fruit in winter. In mild climates, by the end of winter, the first generation of adults appears, affecting late citrus fruits. After reproduction, the females bite the bark of the fruit and verify the laying of eggs inside. Emerging larvae feed on the pulp of the fruit by practicing galleries, which rot and fall to the ground. Then the larvae leave the fruit to pupate inside a pupario of 4 mm and reddish brown, buried in the ground, a few centimeters deep.
At the beginning of spring the new adults appear, which pass to the fruit trees of earlier maturation, such as apricots or medlars. The generations follow each other, affecting peaches and other stone fruit trees in summer, coinciding with the 3rd generation, pip fruit, figs, persimmon, then the vine, and finally the earliest citrus, early clementine, for example. as of October As of November, with the temperature drop, its activity ceases to a great extent, to reappear again at the end of winter, thus completing its life cycle.
The fruit fly develops optimally at a temperature range between 16 and 32ºC and a relative humidity of 75-85%.
Threshold temperature (ºC) 10
Thermal Integral (day degrees) 360
Up to 8
Symptoms / Damage
Rotting of the fruit by the entry of fungi through the bites made by the females at the time of laying eggs.
Fall of fruits by decomposition of the pulp.
Immediate destrío of the fruit by presence of larvae and their galleries.
The Mediterranean fly control should be based on reducing the number of adults through massive trapping and the application of chemical treatments that protect the fruit when it is more receptive to the attack and once the pest is detected. This must be complemented by appropriate cultural measures, especially the removal of fallen fruit to the ground.
The attacks of the fruit fly start in citrus fruits from September-October with the beginning of the maturation of the extra early varieties (Okitsu, Oronules, Marisol, ...). Before the fruit is very small and the fly can not bite, also has other fruits more attractive than citrus in that period.
The applications start after the detection of the pest from the change of color of the fruit. A possible threshold is to spray when more than 0.5 flies are caught per trap per day or more than 1% of affected fruits are observed.
Bait spraying (patching) aimed at attracting and destroying adults before they sting the fruit. An insecticide (spinosad, etofenprox, lambda cyhalothrin) mixed with a food attractant, such as hydrolysed proteins, is used.
In bait applications it is only the sunniest part of the tree, the south face. Repeat the treatment every 7-10 days.
In the extra-early varieties, the bait treatment loses efficiency once the total fruit maturity has been reached. From that moment on, total treatments without bait are recommended, with methyl chlorpyrifos, or azadirachtin (in organic production).
Once the pest is detected, whether adults or affected fruits.
The active substances to be used are: lambda cyhalothrin, deltamethrin (except plum), azadirachtin, methyl chlorpyrifos, among others. The treatments are applied with a frequency of 7-10 days during the 5 weeks prior to collection.
The persimmon is a fruit especially sensitive to the attack of the plague. It is carried out a preventive treatment from change of color of the fruit or a few days before with the active substances azadiractin, etofenprox. These substances can be mixed with hydrolysed proteins to perform bait treatments (wetting only the south face of the tree in this case).
Vine (table grape)
From the beginning of maturation, after observing the presence of the plague.
Lambda cyhalothrin applied in bait in a similar way to the above. This treatment also serves to combat the fly of vinegar. Repeat as necessary every 7-10 days.