The butterfly is somewhat larger than the Eupoecilla (15 mm in span) has the front wings of a gray color, with reddish and brown spots. The sexes are easily differentiated as much by their morphology as by their behavior. The males, as in the chrysalis state, are smaller, have a narrower abdomen, have an anal comb of modified scales and much more agile and nervous movements when they are bothered.
The caterpillar can reach 10-15 mm. long, before reaching the ninfosis. It is a yellowish green or light brown, has a light yellow head, is agile and moving. In its development it has five changes.
Chrysalis: Whitish, blue or green color just formed, turns brown or dark brown in a few hours.
Biological Cycle of Lobesia Botrana:
In the vine, the first generation of lobesia, in May-June, damages the inflorescences, the second in July damages the grains of the green clusters, and the third generation in August-September damages the grains of grapes in veraison and ripening.
Lobesia botrana winters as a chrysalis, with induced diapause, from September-October until the following spring. It is located preferably under the bark of the strains, and in the crevices of the rodrigones when the vine is driven on a trellis, inside a cocoon with a stronger and more consistent texture than when the chrysalis is non-diapausing. In the mechanism of inhibition of diapause, not yet well known, decisively intervenes the average temperature of the end of winter and the beginning of spring.
Description of Eupoecilla ambiguella:
The butterfly from 7 to 8 mm. of length and 13-14 mm. of scale. Its anterior wings, of a yellow-ocher color, are crossed by a wide transverse band of a brown color.
The caterpillar (up to 10 mm long), of a vinous color, has a shiny black head and moves slowly.
Damages of Cluster Moths:
- In the 1st generation the damages do not usually impact production, except for small grain varieties (eg Pinot) and situations of fruit set problems (due to the variety or climatic conditions).
- In the summer generations (2nd and 3rd generation), attacks of weak or medium degree impact little on the amount of harvest but the damage caused by these pests is the preferred entry route for cluster rot, of which there is basically two types:
Acid rot, produced by bacteria and yeasts of the genus Acetobacter, Saccharaomyces and Kloeckera.
Podredumbe fungal, produced by fungi of the genus Botrytis, Rhizopus, Aspergillus and Penicillium, among others.
These rots diminish the quality of wines (reduction of color in reds with brown colors, yellows in whites, loss of aromas, unpleasant flavors, etc.).
Some species of Aspergillus are the main agents responsible for the presence in the grape of the mycotoxin Ochratoxin A (OTA), toxic substance of fungal origin that then passes to the juices, musts and wines made from these contaminated grapes.
The maximum amount of Ochratoxin A in wines is limited by current regulations to 0.02 mg / l.
Preventive / cultural measures:
Use of sexual traps (monitoring). Visual inspection of glomeruli, perforations and laying.
Follow the recommendations of the Warning Stations.
Pruning in green, leafless and handling clusters of bunches facilitate phytosanitary treatments.